Hypothalamus as the highest center of regulation of vegetative functions

As noted above, the hypothalamus contains neurons responsible for regulating the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic centers of the brain stem and spinal cord, as well as for the secretion processes of the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands and sex glands. Grace and pn the hypothalamus is involved in regulating the activities of all Interna n of organs, in regulation of integrative processes as exchange ene p ology and substances, thermoregulation, and the formation of different m of range of biological motivations (e.g., food, drink and n of lovoy), whereby organized behavioral activity of the organism, aimed at meeting the relevant biological con b Nost. It was noted above that, according to the hypothesis B. Hess kernel n e Independent user and partly considered as secondary hypothalamus higher pairs and sympathetic centers or trophotropic zone, whereas the rear core e w (and partially average) of the hypothalamus – the higher sympathetic centers, or ergotropic zones. On the other hand, there is e of diffuse neuronal localization of regulating the activity of B m pathic (or parasympathetic) neurons – each center otve t  governmental regulation of the activities of the respective internal org and on or integrative process, there are two types of neurons. It is now known that the hypothalamus performs the regulation of the activities of lo p dechno-vascular system; clotting activity and protivosvert s vayuschey blood systems; activity of the immune system (in conjunction with the rule h kovoy gland) of the organism; external respiration, including the coordination of Lego parts Noah ventilation with cardiovascular activity and somatic reactions; motor and secretory activity of la and ritelnogo tract; water-salt exchange, ion composition, volume ext e cellular fluid and other indicators of homeostasis; intensity of che-formation; protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism; main and b present exchange and thermoregulation. The important role of the hypothalamus plays in the regulation of eating behavior. The existence in the hypothalamic and Moses two interacting centers: hunger (lateral nucleus hypothetical and lamusa) and saturation (ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus). Electrical e Skye stimulation provokes the hunger center in the act of eating the well-fed animal, whereas stimulation of the satiety center interrupts the meal. Destroy e of the hunger center is refusal of food intake (aphagia) and water, which often leads to death of the animal. Electric stimulation lat e eral hypothalamic nucleus increases salivary secretion and acorn h GOVERNMENTAL glands, bile, insulin, increases motor activity of the stomach and intestines. Damage to the saturation center increases food intake (g and perphagia). Almost immediately after such an operation, the animal begins to eat a lot and often, which leads to hypothalamic obesity. When food is restricted, body weight decreases, but as soon as restrictions are removed, hyperphagia reappears, decreasing only with the development of obesity. These animals also showed increased intelligibility when choosing food, preferring the most delicious. Obesity following the injury the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, accompanied anabolic changes: changing glucose metabolism, increased cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, reduced level con b Lenia oxygen and utilization of amino acids. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus, and reduces salivary secretion zhel y glands, insulin, gastric and intestinal motility. Thus, we can conclude that the lateral hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of metabolism and internal secretion, while the ventromedial has an inhibitory effect on it.

The role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of eating behavior . Normally, blood sugar is one of the important (but not the only) factors of eating behavior. Its concentration is very accurately reflects energy § about trebnost the body, and the magnitude of the difference between its content in the arterial and venous blood is closely associated with the feeling of hunger or satiety. In lat e tral nucleus of the hypothalamus are glucoreceptors (neurons of membrane in a not that have receptors for glucose), which are inhibited at Zoom th Research Institute of blood glucose. It is found that their activity is significant v hydrochloric extent determined glucoreceptors ventromedial nuclei which initially activated glucose. Hypothalamic Glyukor e Ceptors receive information about glucose content in other parts of the body. This signal peripheral glucoreceptors, finding I schiesya in the liver, the carotid sinus, the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the hypothalamus glucoreceptors, integrating information obtained through the nervous and humoral pathways, are involved in the control of food intake. Numerous data have been obtained on the participation of various brain structures in the control of food intake. Afagiya (refusal of food) and adipsia (refusal of water) are observed after damage to the pale ball, the red nucleus, the lining of the midbrain, the substantia nigra, the temporal lobe, the amygdala. Hyperphagia (gluttony) develops after damage to the frontal lobes, thalamus, central gray matter of the midbrain. Despite the inherent nature of the food reactions, numerous data show that in the regulation of food intake important role Acc e INH conditioned reflex mechanisms. Many factors are involved in the regulation of eating behavior. The effect on the appetite of the species, food and taste of food is well known . The degree of filling of the stomach also affects the appetite. The dependence of food intake on the ambient temperature is well known: low temperature stimulates food intake, high – inhibits. The final adaptive effect of all the mechanisms involved in feeding behavior is to take in quantities of food balanced in on caloric content with consumed energy. This achieves a constant t in body mass.

The role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of body temperature. At the level of 36.6 ° C, the human body temperature is maintained with very high accuracy, up to a tenth of a degree. In the anterior hypothalamus there are neurons whose activity is sensitive to changes in the temperature of this region of the brain. If artificially raise the temperature of the anterior hypothalamus, the increase observed in the animal respiratory rate, increased n e rifericheskih blood vessels and increased heat flow. At about x cool the anterior hypothalamus are developing response aimed at increasing heat production and heat retention: shivering, piloerection (hair raising), peripheral vasoconstriction. Peripheral ones etc. lovye Kholodova thermoreceptors and carried in the hypothalamus about ambient temperature, and to temperature changes in the brain include advance corresponding holes reflex e you. Behavioral and endocrine response activatable cold to n troliruyutsya posterior hypothalamus, and those that are activated by heat, – n e Independent user hypothalamus. After removing the brain hypothetical front and lamusa remain warm-blooded animals, but the accuracy evap p hydrochloric regulation is deteriorated. The destruction of the anterior hypothalus a musa in animals makes it impossible to maintain body temperature.

local_offerevent_note May 14, 2019

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