Under natural conditions, the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous centers B with threads are in a state of excitation, known as “tone.” The phenomenon of the constant tone of the autonomic nervous system is manifested primarily in the fact that the efferent fibers to the organs is constantly stream of pulses with a certain frequency ff e been concerned. It is known that the state of parasympathetic system best reflects the activity of the heart, particularly the heart rhythm, and the state of the tone of the sympathetic system – vascular system, h t Nost, arterial pressure (at rest or while performing functional tests). Many aspects of the nature of tonic activity of STI is little s is known. It is believed that nuclear tone formations formed primarily due to the influx of sensory inform a tion of refleksoge n GOVERNMENTAL zones interoceptors individual groups, as well as somatic recipe of the moat. This does not exclude the existence of its own pacemakers – pacemakers localized in Ba in the prefecture, in the medulla oblongata. Nature tonic sympathetic activity e Skog, metasympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system may be associated also with the endogenous levels m of modulators (direct and indirect), adrenoreactivity, cold and noreak-ciency and other types of x e sabotage. Tone of the autonomic nervous system should be considered as one of the manifestations Goma a static state and simultaneously one of the mechanisms of its stub and tion of.
The constitutional classification of ANS tone in humans. Predominance tonic sympathetic and parasympathetic influences parts Autonom m hydrochloric nervous system formed the basis for constitution making N hydrochloric classification. In 1910 Eppinger and Hess created the doctrine of si m patikotonii and vagotonia. They divided all people into two categories – sympathicotonic and vagotonic. Signs vagotonia they felt re d cue pulse, slow deep breath, decreased blood pressure value, with at voltage and ocular slit pupils, tendency to hypersalivation and Mete about ism. Now there are more than 50 symptoms and vagotonia simpatikot of SRI (only 16 % of healthy people can determine sympathicotonia or vagotonia). Recently, A . M. Greenberg proposes to allocate seven types of vegetative reactivity: general sympathicotonia; partial si m patikotoniya; common vagotonia; partial vagotonia; amuses Mr. Nye reaction; general intense reaction; general weak reaction.
The question of autonomic tone (autonomic) nervous system requires additional studies, especially considering the large inter e sa which exhibit thereto in medicine, physiology, psychology and n e dagogike. It is believed that the tone of the vegetative nervous system reflects the process of a person’s biological and social adaptation to various environmental conditions and lifestyles. Assessing the tone of the autonomic nervous system is one of the difficult tasks of physiology and medicine. There are special methods for the study of vegetative tonus. H and example, examining skin autonomic reflexes, particularly pilomoto p nye reflex, or “goose skin” reflex (it is caused by pain or cold irritation of the skin in the area of the trapezius muscle), in the normotonic type of reaction, “goose skin” is formed in healthy people. When the lesion side horns anterior roots sleep n marrow and border the sympathetic trunk reflexes are absent at a. In the investigation of sweat reflex or aspirin sample (1 g ingestion of aspirin dissolved in a beaker of hot tea) from a healthy person has a diffuse sweating (positive aspirin on -hand probe). In lesions of the hypothalamus or paths connecting hypothetical and lamus sympathetic neurons from the spinal cord, diffuse potootd e no treatment (negative aspirin test).
In assessing vascular reflexes, the local dermis of grafism is often examined , i. e. vascular response to stroke irritation of the skin of the forearm or other parts of the body with the handle of a neurological hammer. In mild skin irritation after a few seconds in normotensive appears b e barking strip due to spasm of the superficial skin vessels. If the irritation is applied more and more slowly, then the normotonics of the p about is a red stripe surrounded by a narrow white border – this is a local red dermographism, which arises in response to a decrease in sympathetic and vasoconstrictor effects on the skin vessels. At higher n nom sympathetic tone both types of card only cause irritation white band (white dermographism bed) and with increasing parasympathetic system, ie. e. when vagotonia, a man both types of ra s Drazhenom (and weak and strong) cause red autographism.
Prevel’s orthostatic reflex consists in the active translation of the subject from a horizontal position to a vertical one, with pulse counting before the beginning of the test and 10-25 seconds after its execution. In yet p motonicheskom type of reaction occurs increased heart rate is 6 beats per minute. A higher pulse frequency communication and fies on sympathetic-tonic type of reaction, while the n th large increase in heart rate (no more than 6 bpm) or n th change pulse indicative of an increased tone parasimpticheskogo card.
In the study of pain dermographism , t. e. when the bar-ra of Drazhenom pin acute skin, the skin appears normotensive edges with Naja band width of 1 – 2 cm, surrounded by a narrow white lines. This reflex is caused by a decrease in the tonic sympathetic effects on the skin vessels. However, it does not occur at a lesion vasodilator fibers going to the vessel as part of a peripheral nerve, or n of expressions depressor department bulbar vasomotor center.