The role of the basal ganglia in the regulation of motor activity

It is believed that afferent input basal nuclei is mild and tum, t.   e.   tailed body and shell. There are three main incoming afferent stream. The first carries sensory information from the thalamus. The second stream of afferentation comes from the midbrain (mainly from the substantia nigra), and the third comes from the cerebral cortex, including the sensory cortex, the motor zones (pyramidal and extrapyre and the medial cortex), from the anterior associative region, as well as lap and z Vilina.

It was established that the globus pallidus is the main structure of the basal ganglia, by which are efferent pathways with virtually all departments tse n central nervous system. From neostriatum, t.   e.   the caudate nucleus, and the shells also follow numerous paths. The most powerful of them is the path to the pale ball, through which the neostriatum is also connected with almost the entire central nervous system. In addition, there are straight paths from the neostriatum to the substantia nigra, to the red nucleus, to the vestibular nuclei, to the fencing, to the medial group of thalamic nuclei, to the cerebellum, and also to the spinal cord. Can not be excluded, etc. Mykh ways and to the cerebral cortex, even though most of the information from the caudate nucleus and putamen to the cortex passes sequentially through the globus pallidus and the thalamus. In general, there is a vicious circle of connections between the neostriatum and the cerebral cortex: the neostriatum — the pale ball — the thalamus — the cerebral hemispheres cortex — the neostriatum.

Of particular interest are the connections of the neostriatum with the black substance and it, since the breakdown of these connections leads to the development of pathology (for example , measures of Parkinson’s disease). The interaction of the substantia nigra and the tail of the nucleus is based on the direct and reverse connections between them. Thus, tired in Leno that stimulation of the caudate nucleus enhances the activity of neurons Th p hydrochloric substance. On the other hand, revealed that stimulation ferrous su b that n tion increases dopamine content in the caudate nucleus, and substantia nigra reduces destruction of it.

With regard to the fence it is well known that it forms a two-way communications with the various lobes of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, with Bon I -inflammatory bulbs with the substantia nigra of the midbrain, with skorl in Sing, caudate nucleus, amygdala, thalamus and pale globe. This indicates that the fence has some important function, including in the regulation of movements. It is believed that the basal ganglia Akad e stno black substance is controlled motor automatisms, both with ensures, normal distribution and adequate tone dd dynamics and zheniya. One of the main functions of the basal nuclei, according to many researchers, is their participation in the formation of motor processes . gram. In particular, it is assumed that the basal ganglia like mozzhe h ku, used as a system in which the specified program to perform complex movements (automatisms and arbitrary Navigating e Nij). In other words, the basal nuclei, like the cerebellum, are considered as an integral part of the extrapyramidal system. It is believed that the formation of the motor program information associates in GOVERNMENTAL cortical areas, ie.   e.   from the places where the “intention” of the movement originates ( pa as well as the flow of information to the cerebellum), goes to the neostriatum, t.   e.   to the caudate nucleus and the shell. From neostriatuma information goes through two channels: 1) to the substantia nigra, from which it returns to the n e o-striatum (dopamine pathway) and simultaneously passes through the thalamus to the cerebral hemispheres of the motor cortex; 2) information is supplied to the neostriatum of pale ball, and from there through the thalamus engine reaches s crust. Thus, all information arriving at the motor cortex from the neostriatum, the pale ball, and the substantia nigra goes through m and the lamus. Enrolling in the motor cortex, information (t.   e.   refined, etc. about a gram of action), is used to control the movement. For this purpose, the motor cortex to the muscles sends motor commands for the feast and Midna and extrapyramidal pathways to alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord. In case of violation of all the above links, changes occur in the human motor sphere.

There is evidence that from the substantia nigra also go downward I conductive path to the gamma motor neurons of the spinal cord and (or) to the cells Re n the show, so that black substance capable of directly to the district was checked by the activity of the alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord. It is not excluded that and Bleu d ny ball has a direct access to the structures of the brain stem, in particular – to PET and acous- formation, and from it – to reticulospinal way. But these effects are probably not critical to the proce with traffic control sah. Thus, the path of “association cortex – mild and thump – the globus pallidus (and in parallel – a black substance) – thalamus – Motor and cortex ”plays an important role in traffic control processes. Currently, it is concluded that the caudate nucleus and putamen perform brake control dressings e -agency response of the s ma. In particular, the striatum performs brake control of the activity of the globus pallidus, thereby Ven and gayutsya the maximum h NOSTA and efficiency motor acts committed.

local_offerevent_note May 9, 2019

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