Engine s nye nucleus of cranial nerves . As is known, part of the cranial nerves has a brain stem, which includes the medulla, bridge and midbrain, contains structures involved in the regulation of muscle activity. These are the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves, the vestibular nuclei, the red nucleus, the reticular formation, the neurons of the lid of the quadrilateral (tectum), and the substantia nigra, which is functionally connected with the basal ganglia. Motor nuclei – the accumulation of alpha motoneurons. These nuclei are involved in the regulation of contractile activity of the striated muscles of the face, throat, lang s ka, eye, innervate the chewing muscles, as well as the muscle, tension , and the tympanic membrane, innervate the entire facial muscle and the tour, etc.
Reflexes of eating (swallowing, sucking, chewing) Representat in lyayut a rather complicated and deterministic serial- s NOSTA inclusion of individual muscle groups, head, neck, chest adhesive r ki and aperture. These receptors are triggered at the mucosal irritation of the oral and nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx due to excitation chuvs m pheno- fibers trigeminal, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. Most of these reflections may be left without e -lying parts of the central nervous system. With the participation of the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves located in the medulla oblongata, some protective reflexes are also real. – vomiting, sneezing, coughing, tears about separation, closing of the eyelids. These reflections provide normal p and bot input sections of the respiratory and digestive systems and eye n have the rejection damaging agents. Protective reflexes carried I are due to the input from the mucous membrane of the eye receptors, mouth, larynx, nasopharynx through sensitive branch SRW th -border and glossopharyngeal nerves in sensitive nuclei of the medulla oblongata, from where it is sent to the motor nuclei of the trigeminal, bluzhdayusch e th, facial, glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal incremental or not p Islands. The brain stem is directly involved in the regulation of body posture due to the implementation of static and statokinetic reflexes. These re p Lexa designed to redistribute muscle tone, grace and convent which preserves comfortable for the animal (and human) posture or produ from walking back into that position of “awkward” postures (or postural-tonic and rectifying reflexes), and save Mr. in of equilibrium during acceleration (statokinetic reflexes). Excitatory or the p bremsstrahlung influence from the stem centers transmitted either nep about sredstvenno alpha-motoneurons, or through the gamma motor neurons and and n terneyrony spinal cord.
Vestibular nuclei are clusters of neurons PRODO l govatogo brain and bridge. The neurons of the vestibular nuclei excite the extensor alpha-motoneurons and simultaneously inhibit the flexor alpha-motoneurons by the mechanism of reciprocal innervation. Thanks to this during stimulation of the vestibular apparatus as changing the tone of the upper and no train their limbs, that despite the change in the position of the head and neck, body balance is not disturbed.
The red nucleus is located in the region of the midbrain. The neurons of this nucleus receive information from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, as well as from the basal nuclei. Red nucleus receives the necessary information about the position of the body in space, on the state of the musculoskeletal system and the skin, red nucleus, together with the vestibular nuclei involved in the registration from lyatsii posture.
Reticular formation of the brain stem – is a structure containing at th Defense and walking in the rostral (to bark) away from the spinal cord to the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. In addition to participating in the treatment ce n trash information (non-specific channel) reticular formation in s fills and function of the propulsion system. Neurons reticular forms a tion oblongata have the same effect on neurons sleep n marrow, as well as the red nucleus neurons – at its excitation they activate the alpha motor neurons and inhibit alpha flexor-extensor motoneurons. Reticular formation neurons bridge, n and turn act like neurons in the vestibular nuclei, ie. e. increase the activity of the alpha motor neurons and inhibit the activity of extensors al s F flexor motoneurons. Therefore, the reticular formation and so forth , and Nima involved in the regulation of posture. Probably due to the fact that Retik in polar collector formation is nonspecific touch n of current, it, using this information, and participates in the regulation of muscle activity.
Static reflexes aimed at changing the skeletal muscle tone at change of body position in space, as well as on a break with EFINITIONS muscle tone, aimed at restoring the normal posture, if the animal is derived from it. In this regard, static refle to sy conventionally divided into postural-tonic and rectifier. Rectifiers s nye reflexes manifested in the fact that the animal of “unusual”, n e peculiar position goes into a natural position for him.