The hypothalamus is located at the base of the human brain and about stavlyaet wall 3rd ventricle. The walls to the base go into the funnel, which ends in the pituitary gland (lower brain gland). The hypothalamus is the central structure of the limbic system mo of ha and performs multiple functions. Some of these functions relate to hormonal regulation, which are carried out through the pituitary gland. Others have Gia functions related to the regulation of biological motivations. They relate about Food consumption and maintenance of body weight, water consumption and water-salt balance in the body, temperature regulation depending on the temperature of the external environment, emotional experiences, muscular work and other factors, reproduction function. It includes at the same Mr. Shin regulation of the menstrual cycle, bearing and birth p e Benke, feeding and more. In men, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior. The hypothalamus also plays a central role in the reaction org and nism to stress factors. Despite the fact that the hypothalamus Catching and is not a very big place in the brain, it is composed of about four dozen cores. The composition of the hypothalamus are neurons that produce hormones or special substances, which in dal s Nation, acting on cells corresponding to the endocrine glands, the anchor of the DYT to release or stop release of hormones (so-called releasing factors, from the English release -. secrete). All these substances vyrab and Tuva in hypothalamic neurons, then transported on their ax on us in the pituitary gland. The nuclei of the hypothalamus are associated with the pituitary gland of the hypothalamic-pituitary tract, which consists of about 200,000 fibers. Property of neurons to produce a special protein secrets and then transporting them to the release into the bloodstream called neyrokr and Nia.
The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon and at the same time the endocrine organ. In certain areas of its transformation of nerve impulses in the endocrine process. Large not minutes anterior hypothalamus Rhone form vasopressin (supraoptic nucleus) and oxytocin (paraventricular nucleus). In other areas of conjecture and lamusa formed releasing factors. Some of these factors play the role of pituitary stimulants (liberins), others – inhibitors (statins). In addition to those neurons whose axons are projected into the pituitary gland or into the portal system of the pituitary gland, other neurons of the same nucleus donate axons to many parts of the brain. Thus, the same hypothalamic neuropeptide can play the role of a neurohormone and a mediator or modulator of synaptic transmission.
The hypothalamus, due to the presence of a large number of diverse neurons associated with other parts of the brain, performs various functions, among which vegetative , sensory, motor, and behavioral (or integrative) can be distinguished . It is obvious that the vegetative function of the hypothalamus as the highest vegetative center is the basic, serving as the basis for the realization of the other functions listed above.