Epithalamus (pineal gland) controls the activity of the olfactory organ is involved in inhibitory control over the formation of the sexual system of the body, regulates the body’s activities in the wo r sponds to the level of ambient light.
All sensory streams, except for the olfactory, go to the thalamus and metatalamus, and from them to the cerebral cortex. Among them are four main flow, for which are performed tactile pulses (n e Independent user path), as well as pain and temperature (lateral path) senses and telnosti to neurons of the ventral posterolateral nucleus. From these neurons , new information enters the postcentral gyrus of the cortex. Other ways to carry information from the photoreceptor and auditory neurons to m e dially and lateral geniculate body. In addition, to the thalamus and met and fibers from the cortex and subcortical nuclei are suitable for the thalamus, and from the thalamus are fibers for the hypothalamus. In general, in humans, impulses from the visual, auditory, gustatory, dermal, muscular systems, the nuclei of the cranial nerves, the cerebellum, the pallidus, the spinal cord, and the long brain come to the thalamic nuclei. Half of the thalamic nuclei gives projection ogre and a bounded region of the cortex (specific, relay, or switching core) gives the other half to the projection subcortical structures and voltage to wish to set up collaterals to the cerebral cortex. One of the cores tal and Musa has direct bilateral communication with the cerebral cortex, the other part of such links does not. Furthermore, thalamic nucleus are essential receptacle and chenie for the activities of the limbic system and in the organization of behavioral science e tion activities, including the conditioned reflex.
Sensory functions thalamus and metathalamus realized due n of NTRY all sensory flow (except for the pulse stream from the olfactory receptor) in specific, or relay, switch and Tel’nykh thalamic nuclei. These act as nuclei subcortical ce n weed centers. Then the information from them enters the projection of the B domain of the cortex, as well as associative and non-specific thalamic nuclei and metathalamus. Sensory information from the associative nuclei of the thalamus and metatalamus enters the associative regions of the cerebral cortex, and information from non-specific nuclei of the thalamus reaches the projection and associative regions of the cortex, causing their diffuse activation.
In specific relay nuclei of the thalamus switched afferen m pulses of from peripheral receptors or from primary Play and neem kernels underlying stem structures. Motor relay cores are involved in the organization of movements, including such as sucking, chewing, swallowing, laughing. In this case, with the participation of thalamic motor p e stocks of the organism are integrated with the vegetative process, to ensure and vayuschimi these movements.
Associative nuclei of the intermediate brain are phylogenetically newer acquisition. Afferent impulses to associative nuclei come mainly from the peripheral sections not sensori p GOVERNMENTAL systems, and the specific and other nuclei of the thalamus and metatalam in meat, even though the preserved topically distribution information. Exc at REPRESENTATIONS from associative nuclei sent to associative sweeps with tyam and partly to secondary projection areas of the cortex. Bolshins m in associative neurons thalamic nuclei and are metathalamus mule s tipolyarnymi capable perform polisensoriye sic to the tion. On such polysensory neurons occurs convergence (convergence) excitaton w tions of different modalities, and the integrated signal is generated, to about tory associative then transmitted to the cerebral cortex. Nespets and graphical instruments sensory nucleus of the thalamus exc morphologically and are not similar to other diencephalic nuclei in that they have a predominantly “ret and -molecular” structure, ie. e. consist mainly of a dense network of neurons with long, weakly branching dendrites. Stimulation of nonspecific causes generation of nuclei in the cortex characteristic fusiform Electrical e tion activity. In general, neurons of nonspecific nuclei do not lead to the initiation of sensory neurons of the cerebral cortex, but change their sensitivity to specific afferentation. Nespets and graphical instruments thalamic nuclei have on the cerebral cortex modulate th present influence regulating its functional state, wherein preim at nificant those areas of the cortex, which are currently involved in a b rabotke incoming sensory information. That’s why de i telnost nonspecific thalamic nuclei is closely linked to registration at lyatsiey rhythm “sleep – wakefulness”, as well as the formation of the integrative processes mo of hectares, providing the conditioned reflex activity and ra of the personal component of mental activity.
In the neural networks of all types of sensory nuclei of the diencephalon, complex integrative processes associated with the processing of sensory information occur. One mechanism for such integration are inhibitory processes that occur in the presence of long Tormo of GOVERNMENTAL postsynaptic potentials in the neural structures of the thalamus.
The over-segmental functions of the thalamus include pain sensitivity analysis and the organization of pain reactions. It is thought that the thalamus is the highest sensitivity to pain center – the impulses going to the neurons in the thalamus of the damaged parts of the body and internal org and new, cause the activation of thalamic neurons and subjective pain. In “thalamic” animals, strong irritations of sensory inputs cause cry, vegetative and behavioral reactions.
Thalamus is involved in the formation of motivation and behavior , eg in lennogo to meet the emerging needs, as well as in impl and tion emotions as a result of evaluating the likelihood of achieving a useful p e result. The participation of the thalamus in these reactions is due, in particular, to the fact that it is the collector of almost all sensory flows , the presence of which is a necessary condition for the implementation of these functions. In the thalamus, an enormous flow of sensory and n formations, from which the most important information is sent not only to the cerebral cortex, but also to the basal ganglia, the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, the nuclei of the amygdala complex. Vnutritalamicheskie communication enable integration of complex motor reactions vegetative s mi processes adjustable structures of the limbic system.