The structure and classification of neurons

The brain consists of billions of nerve cells, or neurons. The neuron consists of three main parts: the body of the neuron (soma); dendrites are short processes that receive messages from other neurons; axon – a long single fiber, the cat of the swarm transmits messages from the soma to the dendrites of other neurons or body tissues, muscles. Transmission of excitation from the axon of one neuron to the dendre and there another is called neurotransmission or neurotransmission. Susches t exists a great variety of CNS neurons. Most often neurons classification is based on three grounds – morphological, sic tional and biochemical.

Morphological classification of neurons based on the number of tons of germs in neurons and neurons all divides into three types – p nye unipolar, bipolar or multipolar.

Unipolar neurons have one process. In the nervous system of people of the century and other mammals, neurons of this type are rarely found. B and polar neurons have two process – the axon and dendrite generally waste I Suitable from opposite poles of the cell. The human nervous system actually bipolar neurons are found mainly in the e Sgiach Peripheral parts of the visual, auditory and olfactory systems. There pa-sighted of bipolar neurons – the so-called psevdounipolyarnye or false unipolar neurons. In both of them, the cellular processes (axon and dendrite) are separated from the cell body as a single outgrowth, which is further divided T-shaped into dendrite and axon. Multipolar Neurons have one axon and many (2 or more) dendrites. They are most common in the human nervous system. The form describes up to 60 – 80 varieties of spindle, stellate, basket-shaped, pear-shaped and pyramidal cells.

In terms of localization of neurons, they are divided into central (in the spinal and brain) and peripheral (outside the central nervous system, autonomic ganglia neurons and metasympathetic veg e-commutative division of the nervous system).

local_offerevent_note April 1, 2019

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