MANIPULATION PA LEATHER 

Crotch protection. In the interyagic fold, between the coccyx and the anus, it is necessary to put a cotton wool or gauze “ear”, so that the antiseptic does not burn the perineum, especially the mucous membrane

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Crotch protection. In the interyagic fold, between the coccyx and the anus, it is necessary to put a cotton wool or gauze “ear”, so that the antiseptic does not burn the perineum, especially the mucous membrane

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ACCESS TO THE BRIDGE MUCKANAL

Exit to the front wall of the sacral canal. Now the needle with mandrin, which should be kept cut to the patient’s abdomen (ventral), is injected in the ventral and cranial direction at an angle of

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Exit to the front wall of the sacral canal. Now the needle with mandrin, which should be kept cut to the patient’s abdomen (ventral), is injected in the ventral and cranial direction at an angle of

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INTRODUCTION OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS

Aspiration for blood (if it enters the vein) or CSF (if the dura mater is punctured ) with caudal access is more important than with intervertebral, because the position of the patient’s body, posture in vivo (with a pillow under

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Aspiration for blood (if it enters the vein) or CSF (if the dura mater is punctured ) with caudal access is more important than with intervertebral, because the position of the patient’s body, posture in vivo (with a pillow under

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PROBLEMS IN CAUDAL ANESTHESIA

Getting into the vessel occurs most often due to the high vascularization of the sacral canal. Due to the patient’s posture (up to the pelvis) and the low pressure in these vessels, blood will not flow

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Getting into the vessel occurs most often due to the high vascularization of the sacral canal. Due to the patient’s posture (up to the pelvis) and the low pressure in these vessels, blood will not flow

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LONG-UP COMPLICATIONS

Pain at the puncture site — the most common complaint in the postoperative period. The most serious cause is periosteal injury (up to the subperiosteal hematoma) of the anterior wall of the sacral canal. Puncture of the

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Pain at the puncture site — the most common complaint in the postoperative period. The most serious cause is periosteal injury (up to the subperiosteal hematoma) of the anterior wall of the sacral canal. Puncture of the

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MEDICAL CAUDAL ANALGEZY

Caudal anesthesia is becoming increasingly rare. But not caudal epidural steroids. Prolonged caudal analgesia (for several days) hardly ever changes due to infection in this area, except — within a few hours after surgery. But a single

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Caudal anesthesia is becoming increasingly rare. But not caudal epidural steroids. Prolonged caudal analgesia (for several days) hardly ever changes due to infection in this area, except — within a few hours after surgery. But a single

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EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA AND ANALGEZY IN CHILDREN

Epidural anesthesia in children has long been used as caudal , and intervertebral. In the 1960s and 1970s, dozens of methods were proposed for calculating the doses of local anesthetics needed for children, with formulas and nomograms. Closer to

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Epidural anesthesia in children has long been used as caudal , and intervertebral. In the 1960s and 1970s, dozens of methods were proposed for calculating the doses of local anesthetics needed for children, with formulas and nomograms. Closer to

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Narcosis or deep sowing

The very situation of the operating room itself scares the child. Venous access, necessary for both general and epidural anesthesia, can be long and painful — much more painful than the epidural blockade itself. Therefore, most children

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The very situation of the operating room itself scares the child. Venous access, necessary for both general and epidural anesthesia, can be long and painful — much more painful than the epidural blockade itself. Therefore, most children

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Caudal anesthesia 23

This is the only generally accepted access to the epidural space for children under the age of 2–3 years old and with a body weight of up to 10 kg. INDICATIONS 1. Intra- and postoperative

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This is the only generally accepted access to the epidural space for children under the age of 2–3 years old and with a body weight of up to 10 kg. INDICATIONS 1. Intra- and postoperative

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INTERVERTEBRAL EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA

The technique of intervertebral epidural anesthesia in children is the same as in adults. A loss of resistance is used to identify the epidural space (rather than a “hanging drop”). In children weighing more than 10

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The technique of intervertebral epidural anesthesia in children is the same as in adults. A loss of resistance is used to identify the epidural space (rather than a “hanging drop”). In children weighing more than 10

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