All ner activity in Neu system is based on two main processes: on the process initiated e Nia and braking. There are several different types of braking.
1 . Reciprocal inhibition (from Lat. Reciprocus – common) was about so openly English physiologist Charles Sherrington and the Russian Fiziol about by God N. E. Vvedensky. This type of inhibition is based on the fact that the same afferent pathways, through which the excitation of one group of nerve cells is carried out, provide the interruption of other groups of neurons through intercalary neurons . For example, excitation of pain p e receptors skin extremity signal from the nociceptor involving afferen m Nogo neuron enters the spinal cord, which switches to the alpha-motoneurons flexors and simultaneously the brake neuron cat about ing inhibits the activity of alpha-motoneuron muscle extensor . Retz and procne braking characteristic for the spinal cord, and for holo to Nogo.
2. Recurrent inhibition is observed in relation to alpha-motoneurons of the spinal cord. When alpha-motoneuron is excited, the nerve impulse is sent to the muscle fibers, exciting them. On d neous collaterals by going to inhibitory neurons (cell Pe n shows), the brake pulse excites the cell, which in turn causes inhibition of previously excited alpha-motoneuron. Thus, alpha-motoneurons, being activated, the braking system not through the second Rhone itself (back or antidromically) inhibits.
3. Tonic inhibition reflects the presence of a constant inhibitory effect of one structure on another. An example of such a constant is p bremsstrahlung influences are inhibitory neurons of the cerebral cortex, which inhibit neurons of the reticular formation of the brain stem, the neurons of the thalamus and the limbic system.
4. General central inhibition is a nervous process that develops during any reflex activity. It captures almost the entire central nervous system, including the centers of the brain. Such inhibition is manifested so camping before there is any motor response.
4. pessimal inhibition of excitatory synapses develops as a result of the strong and long-lasting postsynaptic depolarization IU m brane here incoming high-frequency switching currents, which leads to a decrease of excitability (increase excitation threshold) in the postsynaptic membrane, making it inactive.
5. Braking after excitation develops often enough, as there is every time against the backdrop of membrane hyperpolarization and us after the next neuron his excitement. It is characterized by the CPA in tively short period of existence, since it is determined so camping lability of the neuron, ie. e. restore the original speed uro in membrane potential AEs after the generation of the next building de minutes quences.
Principles of coordination of the brain . CNS consists of a large number of neurons, which form the various layers on level x NOSTA and purpose neural association – nerve centers, neural circuit, reflex arc, neural ensembles, neural network. Part of these associations is due to genetic information, and some – in the process of individual development on the basis of certain principles, to about torye also incorporated in the genetic program. These principles will help meout to integrate the activities of individual neural associations in order to fulfill the most important tasks of the body, providing him survive in the real conditions of existence.
The principle of irradiation , or divergence, excitation of the central nervous system. Irradi and excitation tion (lat. Irradio , illuminate, lighting) – is the spread of excitation from one site to the other CNS. Each neuron due to numerous branches (divergence) terminating with and Napso, and a large number of neurons associated with many others have gimi neurons. Therefore, nerve impulses from one neuron can be directed to a thousand other neurons. The process of irradiation excitaton Well Denia regulated by different mechanisms. It can be enhanced, n as an example, due to the activation of the reticular formation of the brain stem. On the other hand, the process of irradiation is limited, and this important action is in schest to wish to set up with the participation of numerous inhibitory neurons. For example, in the spinal cord limit the irradiation is carried out through the fur and nism recurrent inhibition using special brake and n terneyronov – Renshaw cells. Irradiation excitation plays excl and Tel’nykh important role, since it allows to exchange information flows numerous different brain structures. It is through the IRR and Diaz is an exchange of information between the first and second signal s GOVERNMENTAL systems (elective irradiation), which significantly increases the chances of higher nervous activity. Due irradi and tion drive integrates the activity of the right and the lion of the hemisphere.